The city of Diyarbakır was known by different names at different times. The name of the city is written as “Amed” or “Amedi” on the grip of the sword belonging to the Assyrian ruler Adad-Nirayi. In the Roman and Byzantine sources it is seen that the city is named “Amed, O’mid, Emit, Amide”. Because the stones of Diyarbakır waters are black, the city called “Kara Amid” has been recorded as “Diyar-i Bekr” with the names “diyār” and “Bekr” during Arab sovereignty. “Diyar-i bekr” – later “Diyarbekir”- was used as a region name until the last years of the Ottoman Empire.
It is seen that in 1867 it was gradually abandoned after the formation of the province and the name of Diyarbekir (Diyar-ı Bekr) was used for the center sanjak as well as a description for the whole region. After a discussion on language during the night of 17 November 1937 when Atatürk passed from Diyarbakır to Elazığ the name of the city was changed to “Diyarbakır” with the work done as a result of a telegram sent to the Turkish Language Foundation.
The city center of Diyarbakır has a history of 7,500 years. The city, which has been recognized as the center of great civilizations, cultural and economic movements in every period of history, has cradled 26 different civilizations.
Those who lived in Diyarbakir, which is an intense historical past starting from the Hurrian to the Ottomans in 3000 BC, immortalized the city with the traces of their periods. The city named as Amed, Amed, Kara amed, Diyar-ı Bekr, Diyarbekir, respectively, has hosted many civilizations throughout history.
In fact, the name Diyar-i Bekr (Diyarbekir) was used as a region name until the last years of the Ottoman Empire. However, it is seen that the use of the name Amid used for the center was gradually abandoned after Diyarbakir (Diyarbakir) became a province in 1867, and the name of Diyarbekir (Diyar-i Bekr) was used for the central sanjak as well as the whole region. The Assyrians and the Urartians, which started with Hittite and the Hurrri-Mitanniler in 350 BC, and Medlar (İ.Ö.653-625), respectively (İ.Ö.1260-653) The Parthians, the Great Tigran, the Romans, the Romans, the Romans, the Romans, the Romans, the Romans, the Romans, 639) The Byzantines remained under their rule. In 639 the city passed through the hands of Muslim Arabs and was ruled by the three caliphs until 661.
The sovereignty of the City started with the Hittites and the Hurrian Kingdom in3500 BC followed by the Assyrians and Urartians (653-625 BC), Medes, (140- 85 BC), The Parthia, (85- 69 BC), The Great Tigrinian, (69 BC- 53 AC) The Romans, (53-226) The Romans-Parthia, (229-295) The Sasanians-Romans, (395-639) and The Byzantines respectively. In 639, the city passed into the hands of Muslim Arabs and was governed by three caliphs until 661.
Later, The Umayyads (661-750), Abbasids (750-869), The Şeyhoğulları (869-899), Abbasids (899-930), Hamdanis (930-978), The Büveyhulları (978-984), Mervani (984-1085), The Great Seljuks (1085-1093), The Syrian Seljuks (1093-1097), The Incanites (1097-1142), The Aprilites (1142-1183), Hasankeyf Artukids (1183-1232), Egypt and Damascus Eyyubileri (1230-1240), Anatolian Seljuks (1240-1302, Hulagi’s armies invaded Diyarbakir and its environs in this favor and were found in great destruction) invaded Diyarbakir and its environs and have been in great destruction.
The city, which was under the rule of ilkhanids (1302-1394), The Timur (1394-1401), the akkoyunlus (1401-1507) and Safavids (1507-1515), was taken under Ottoman rule by Bıyıklı Mehmet Pasha on 15 September 1515. Diyarbakir became the center of one of the important provinces during the Ottoman period and served as the base of operations and winter quarters for the armies that were moving to the east.
Diyarbakir, in the recent Ottoman Empire period and especially during times close to the 1st World War, suffering great distress due to sickness, fire and misery, has experienced major and important zoning, social, cultural and economic movements during the Republic era . After the 1950s the new city was established and grew from day to day with roads, hospitals, schools and modern buildings. New city became one of the important centers connected to all four sides of Turkey with road, by air and railway.